Chemical Fertilizers in Agriculture

Soils naturally contain many nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorous, calcium, and potassium. These nutrients allow plants to grow. When soil nutrients are missing or in short supply, plants suffer from nutrient deficiency and stop growing. When the nutrient level is too low, the plant cannot function properly and produce the food essential to nourish the worlds’ population. Fertilizers are used daily by farmers and families to help crops and gardens grow. Either for a large farm with thousands of acres of crop or for a small garden of flower, a large amount of fertilizers has been produced to help different plants grow in different soil and climatic conditions.

Once crops are harvested for human consumption, the natural supply of nutrients in the soil must be “re-filled”. This is why farmers add nutrients to their soils. Nutrients can be added from a variety of sources— chemical fertilizers, organic matter and even by some plants. This sustains the soil fertility, so the farmer can persist to grow nutritive and healthy crops.

Farmers turn to fertilizers because these substances contain plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Fertilizers are plant nutrients applied to agricultural fields to supplement required elements found naturally in the soil. Fertilizers have been used since the start of agriculture. Native American people used crude fertilizers, such as burying a fish in their corn plots, and organic farmers use fertilizer from natural source, such as compost. Most farmers today use fertilizers that are either mined or manufactured.

Regardless of the source of the fertilizer, all plants use the same inorganic forms of fertilizer in the soil. Sometimes the source of nitrogen can be plants called “nitrogen fixers.” Many farmers use crops, such as alfalfa (called legumes) and soybeans that can remove naturally occurring nitrogen in the atmosphere, and place (“fix”) it in the soil for future crops to use.

Fertilizer use is very expensive and can harm the environment if not used correctly. Therefore, before adding fertilizer, farmers send a soil sample to a laboratory for baseline testing. By testing their soil, farmers know which nutrients—and how much—to apply to the soil. If too little is added, crops will not produce as much as they should. If too much is added, or at the wrong time, excess nutrients will run off the fields and pollute streams and groundwater. So, while fertilizers serve an important purpose, farmers must be careful to use the right amount, at the right time, to avoid potential negative effects to the environment.

To stay healthy, humans need to acquire essential nutrients from many different food sources. The demand for food and other products from agricultural systems will increase over the next few decades. This means that we need to keep our soils healthy and full of nutrients in order to feed the growing population.

Ritika Joshi

Ritika Joshi is a PhD scholar in Microbiology Dept. of Bioscience and Biotech, Banasthali Vidyapith

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