Nanoparticles for sustainable agricultural practices

With the fast-developing nanotechnology, metal-based nanoparticles (NPs) production and application are increased significantly. Nanoparticles have emerged as a versatile platform, which could provide cost-effective, efficient and environmentally acceptable solutions to the global sustainability challenges facing society. Nanoparticles have a significant influence on the economy and the environment by improving both fertilizers and energy. So, these nanoparticles have a high potential for achieving sustainable agriculture. NPs show a promise in different fields of agricultural biotechnology. NPs have unique physicochemical properties and the potential to boost plant metabolism. Plants are the basic component of the ecosystem and the most important source of food for mankind; therefore, understanding the impacts of NPs on plant growth and development is crucial for the evaluation of potential environmental risks on food safety and human health imposed by NPs.Using different fertilizers are very important for plant growth and development, but most of the used fertilizers are rendered unavailable to plants due to many factors, such as leaching, degradation by photolysis, hydrolysis, and decomposition. Therefore, it is necessary to minimize nutrient losses in fertilization and to increase the crop yield through the exploitation of new applications with the help of nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Nano-fertilizers or nano-encapsulated nutrients might have properties that are effective to crops, release the nutrients on demand, control the release of chemical fertilizers that regulate plant growth, and enhance target activity. Agricultural application of NPs is currently an interesting area of interest for minimizing the use of chemical fertilizers and improves growth and yield of crops. The introduction of nanoparticles into plants might have a significant impact, and thus, they can be used for agricultural applications for better growth and yield.

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