With so many options available for solutions to childlessness, surrogacy has emerged as a major option for many couples across the world.
While many countries chose to not go with this option and banned it, it has become a favourite option for people in Mexico and India.
After its first surrogate delivery in 1924, India has attracted many couples and has become one international destination. Relatively cheaper medical facilities, know-how reproductive technology and easy availability of women for poor socio-economic background in India have helped in the growth.
So what is surrogacy and what are its types?
Surrogacy is something which is opted by those parents who have a medical issue in childbearing and seek another woman to carry their baby and give birth to the baby in return for some cash or kind usually.
If the surrogate mother receives compensation beyond reimbursement of medical and other reasonable expenses, the arrangement is considered as commercial surrogacy or otherwise, it is known as altruistic surrogacy.
Gestational surrogacy: In this type of surrogacy, the woman has viable eggs but isn’t in a position to carry the baby and give birth, so in this case, IVF technique is used and then the fertilized Ova is implanted in a surrogate mothers womb.
Traditional surrogacy: The surrogate mother is the egg donor as well in this type of surrogacy. The woman is then artificially inseminated with father’s sperm using IVF technique.
1.Possible exploitation of the poor women:
Why would anybody want to go through the turmoil of pregnancy which can prove to be dangerous and deadly sometimes? Why would a woman choose to bear a child who she won’t see for the rest of her life? The answer to all these questions is one: Poverty. Due to their socio, economic backwardness and limited work wages, such women are ready to take up such tasks to earn extra money. However, the money they receive is very low as compared to money received at surrogacy centres. This gives rise to the fear that these women will be exploited as baby producers.
There is no insurance coverage for surrogate mothers, in case she needs some medical intervention during or after surrogacy. If the mother dies during pregnancy, there is no compensation which would be able to suffice. So the safety of surrogate mothers should be given the priority.
Due to commercial surrogacy, women might appear as the ultimate commodity which is not good for the society as well as for women empowerment. An ethical rule which abides by the entire legal framework should be brought into the picture.
4.Rights of the child born out of surrogacy:
Which country would the child belong to? What would be his/her nationality? What would be his/her rights? Nobody considers these rights. The full parenthood is transferred to the biological parents after the child is born and the child has no right to information of any siblings born thereafter.
Many people think that surrogacy is a Right and is an exercise of reproductive choice, and freedom to contract. If you don’t legalize it in India, it would mean that women aren’t capable of making their own decisions and it would promote a patriarchal society.
Infertile women now have a hope and families are happier regarding childlessness in the community.
A STEP towards GENDER EQUALITY: surrogacy gives those mothers a chance to become mothers who are busy running their lives, and can’t afford to bear babies. It gives them an opportunity to have a baby while continuing their work. By having enough money for their daughters, surrogate mothers are widening options so that their daughters don’t feel a need to opt for surrogacy to earn money.